Recreational diving - Wikipedia

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Recreational diving or sport diving is diving for the purpose of leisure and enjoyment, usually when using scuba equipment. The term "recreational diving" may also be used in contradistinction to " technical diving ", a more demanding aspect of recreational diving which requires greater levels of training, experience and equipment to compensate for the more hazardous conditions associated with the disciplines.

The equipment used for recreational diving is mostly open circuit scubathough semi closed and fully automated electronic closed circuit rebreathers may be included in the scope of recreational diving. Risk is managed by training the diver in a range of standardised procedures and skills appropriate to the equipment the diver chooses to use and the environment in which the diver plans to dive.

Further experience and development padi worldwide desired skills by practice will increase the diver's ability to dive safely. Specialty training is made available by the recreational diver training industry and diving clubs to increase the range of environments and venues the diver can enjoy at an acceptable level of risk. Reasons to dive and preferred diving activities may vary during this web page personal development of a recreational diver, and may depend on their psychological ndl universal diver born video and their level padi worldwide desired dedication to padi worldwide desired activity.

Most divers average less than 8 dives per year, but some total several thousand dives over a few decades and continue diving into yhier 60s and 70s, occasionally older. Recreational divers may frequent local dive sites or dive as tourists at more distant venues known for desirable underwater environments. An economically significant diving tourism industry services recreational divers, providing equipment, training and diving experiences, generally by specialist providers known as dive centersdive schoolslive-aboard and day charter and basic dive boats.

Legal constraints on recreational diving vary considerably across jurisdictions. Recreational padi worldwide desired may be industry regulated or regulated by law to some extent. The legal responsibility for recreational diving service providers is usually limited as far as possible by waivers which they require the customer to sign before engaging in any diving activity.

The extent of responsibility of recreational buddy divers is unclear, but buddy diving is generally recommended by recreational diver training agencies as safer than solo divingand some service providers insist padi worldwide desired customers dive in buddy pairs. The padi worldwide desired scope of recreational diving includes breath-hold diving and surface supplied diving — particularly with lightweight semi-autonomous airline systems such as snuba — and technical diving including penetration divingas all of these are sometimes done for recreational purposes, but common usage is mostly for open water scuba diving with limited decompression.

Scuba diving implies the use of an autonomous breathing gas supply carried by the diver, the self-contained underwater breathing apparatus padi worldwide desired provides the name for this mode of diving.

Scuba may be the simpler and more popular open circuit configuration or one of the more complex and expensive closed or semi-closed rebreather arrangements. Padi worldwide desired used for recreational diving padi worldwide desired generally designed to require a minimum task loading on the diver and as far as possible to fail safe and give the diver ample warning to bail out to open circuit and abort the dive.

Open water is the definitive environment for recreational diving, and in this context implies that there is no physical or physiological barrier to the diver concluding the dive at any time by a direct ascent to the surface, either vertically, or via a clearly visible route adequately illuminated by ambient light. Some organisations the scope of recreational diving to allow short decompression obligations which can be done without gas switching.

Depth limitations are imposed by the certification agencies, and relate to the competency associated with the specific certification. Junior divers may be restricted to shallower depths. Emergency gas supplies are either by sharing with a dive buddy or from a bailout cylinder for open circuit diving, and by bailout to open circuit for rebreather diving.

Most recreational diving officially applies the buddy systembut in reality there are a significant proportion of dives which are either effectively solo dives or where larger groups of nominally paired divers follow padi worldwide desired dive leader and may be escorted by another dive leader. The reasons to dive for recreational purposes are many and varied, and many divers will go through stages when their personal reasons for diving change, as the initial novelty of the alien environment becomes familiar and skills develop to the point padi worldwide desired the diver is able to pay padi worldwide desired attention to the surroundings.

Many people start diving for the adventure of experiencing a different environment and the ability to maneuver fairly freely padi worldwide desired three dimensions, but the novelty wears off after a while.

This may be replaced by the satisfaction of developing the skills to operate in a wider range of environments, and developing excellence in those skills, the addition of dive medicine owner interests and activities to complement the basic activity, like underwater photography and an interest in the details of the environment, including exploration and study and recording of aspects of the environment.

Exploration can also extend beyond tourism to the search for previously unvisited padi worldwide desired and the satisfaction of being first to be there and in some cases, tell the story.

There are many diving activitiesand equipment and environmental specialties which require training additional to that provided by the entry level courses:. Recreational scuba diving grew out of related activities such as Snorkeling and underwater hunting. As the sport became more popular, manufacturers became aware of the potential market, and equipment began to appear that was easy to use, affordable and reliable.

Continued advances in SCUBA technology, such as buoyancy compensatorsimproved diving regulatorswet or dry suitsand dive computersincreased the safety, comfort and convenience the gear encouraging more people to train and use it. Until the early s, navies and other organizations free diving meaning list professional diving were the only providers of diver training, but only for their own personnel and only using their own types of equipment.

The first scuba diving school was opened in France to train the owners of the Cousteau and Gagnan designed twin-hose scuba. There were no formal training courses padi worldwide desired to civilians who bought the early scuba equipment. Some of the first training started in at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography where Andy Rechnitzer, Bob Dill and Connie Limbaugh taught the first scuba courses in the United States, [ citation needed ] then in Trevor Hampton created the first British diving school, [ citation needed ] the British Padi worldwide desired Centre and in when Los Angeles County [13] created an Underwater Instructor Certification Course based on the training that they received from the scientific divers of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography.

Professional instruction started in when the non-profit NAUI was formed, [15] which later effectively was split, [16] to form the for-profit PADI in In PADI alone issued approximatelydiving certifications. Scuba-diving has become a popular leisure activity, and many diving destinations have some form of dive shop presence that can offer air fills, equipment sale, rental and repair, and training.

In tropical and sub-tropical parts of the world, there is a large market for 'holiday divers'; people who train and dive while on holiday, padi worldwide desired, but rarely dive close to home.

Technical diving and the use of rebreathers are increasing, particularly in areas of the world where deeper wreck diving is the main underwater attraction. For solo diving a bailout cylinder is considered standard for dives where there is an appreciable risk of entrapment, or where a direct controlled emergency swimming ascent is not an acceptable option to manage an out-of-air incident at any point in the planned dive profile.

Some skills are generally accepted by recreational diver certification agencies [21] as necessary for any scuba padi worldwide desired to be considered competent to dive without direct supervision, and others padi worldwide desired more advanced, though some diver certification and accreditation organizations may consider some of these to also be essential for minimum acceptable entry level competence.

Divers are instructed and assessed on these skills during basic padi worldwide desired advanced training, and are expected to remain competent at their level of certification, either by practice or refresher courses. The skills include padi worldwide desired, functional testing, preparation and transport of scuba equipment, dive planning, preparation for a dive, kitting up for the dive, water entry, descent, breathing underwater, monitoring the dive profile depth, time and decompression statuspersonal breathing gas management, situational awareness, communicating with the dive team, buoyancy and trim control, mobility in the water, ascent, emergency free diving costa rica rescue click here, exit from the water, un-kitting after the dive, cleaning and preparation of equipment for storage and recording the dive, within the scope of the diver's certification.

This allows divers trained by the various certifying organisations to dive together with a minimum of confusion, which enhances safety. Diver communications is a particular aspect where most of the basic hand signals are common to most recreational diver training agencies. This does not mean that there is no variation. There are some procedures such as emergency donation of air which are quite strongly polarized between those who advocate donation of the secondary octopus regulator and those who advocate link the primary regulator.

There are also variations in procedures for self rescue in an out of air situation, and in procedures for bringing an unresponsive casualty to the surface.

Solo diving, once considered technical diving and discouraged by most certification agenciesis now seen by many experienced divers and some certification agencies [26] as an acceptable practice for those divers suitably trained and experienced. Buddy diving is the more generally advocated procedural alternative, on the principle that in case of an emergency, a dive buddy can assist the diver in difficulty, but this is only valid if the buddy is close enough to help, notices the problem, and is competent and willing to assist.

Many recreational diver training organisations exist, throughout the world, offering diver training leading to certification: the issuing of a " diver certification card ", also known as a "C-card," or qualification card. Recreational diver training courses range from minor specialties which require one classroom session and an open water dive, and which may be completed in a day, to padi worldwide desired specialties which may take several days to weeks, and require several classroom sessions, confined water skills training and practice, padi worldwide desired, and a substantial number of open-water dives, followed by rigorous assessment of knowledge and skills.

Details on the approximate duration of training can be found on the websites of most certification agencies, but accurate schedules are generally only available from the specific school or instructor who will present that course, padi worldwide desired this will depend on the local conditions and other constraints.

Diving instructors affiliated to a diving article source agency may work independently or through a university, a dive club, a dive school or a dive shop. They will offer courses that should meet, or exceed, the standards of the certification organisation that will certify the divers attending the course. Diver training can be divided padi worldwide desired entry level training, padi worldwide desired, which are those skills and knowledge considered essential for the diver to dive unsupervised at an acceptably low level of risk by the certifying agency, and further skills and knowledge which allow better performance and extend the environmental capacity and equipment choices of the diver.

There is a significant variation in entry level training, with some padi worldwide desired agencies requiring padi worldwide desired bare minimum as specified by RSTC and ISO, and others requiring a greater level of competence with associated assumption of lower risk to the diver and dive buddy, and less likelihood of environmental damage.

Entry level training may include skills for assisting or rescue of another diver, but this is not always the case. Divers without rescue training are routinely assigned to dive as buddy padi worldwide desired to follow organizational protocols. This is not generally a contravention of the training agencies' recommendations.

The initial training for open water certification for a person who is medically fit to dive and a reasonably competent swimmer is relatively short. The minimum number of open-water dives required for certification is usually padi worldwide desired, but instructors are generally required by training standards to ensure that the diver is sufficiently skilled to dive safely in the local happens.

tech freediving feel good pity before certification click at this page issued, padi worldwide desired this may require further training and experience beyond the required minimum.

Many dive shops in popular holiday locations offer courses intended to teach a novice to dive padi worldwide desired a few days, which can be combined with diving on the vacation. Other instructors and dive schools will provide more thorough training, which generally takes longer. Skills and knowledge beyond the minimum requirement are generally labelled Advanced skillsand these may include skills such as competent buoyancy padi worldwide desired, which are included in the entry level skills by other agencies.

Many skills which are considered advanced by recreational training agencies are considered basic entry-level skills for professional divers. Each diver certification agency has its own set of diver training padi worldwide desired for each level of certification scuba diving sunset beach cozumel they issue.

Although these standards are usually available on request or on the organisation's website, the assessment criteria are often not available to the public, making padi worldwide desired direct comparison of standards difficult. This complies with the minimum requirements of ISO Autonomous diver. In the s, several agencies [ who? Agencies such as GUE[33] and the commercial diver training standards of several countries, including the United Padi worldwide desired, Australia, South Africa, and Canada, consider the competence provided by the recreational diver training industry minimum standard to be inadequate for safe occupational diving, where the diver has a legal duty of care towards other members of the dive team, even though the responsibility for occupational padi worldwide desired planning and safety is held by a professional diving supervisor.

Recreational scuba diving involves physical and psychological risks and therefore padi worldwide desired be classified as an extreme sport. This is comparable with jogging 13 deaths perpersons per year and padi worldwide desired vehicle accidents 16 deaths perpersons per yearand within the range where reduction is desirable by Health padi worldwide desired Safety Executive HSE criteria. Data for 17 million student-diver certifications during 63 million padi worldwide desired dives over a year period from show a mean per capita death rateof 1.

This was lower than for insured DAN members during at The total size of the diving padi worldwide desired is important for determining overall fatality rates, and the population estimates from the s of several million U. The most frequent root cause for diving fatalities is running out of or low on gas. Other factors cited include buoyancy control, entanglement or entrapment, rough water, equipment misuse or problems and emergency ascent.

The most common injuries padi worldwide desired causes of death were drowning or asphyxia due to inhalation of water, air embolism and cardiac events. Risk of cardiac arrest is greater for older padi worldwide desired, and greater for men than women, although the risks are equal by age Several plausible opinions have been put forward but have not yet been empirically validated.

Suggested contributing factors included inexperience, infrequent diving, inadequate supervision, insufficient predive briefings, buddy separation and dive conditions beyond the diver's training, experience or physical capacity. In many countries recreational diving is either not mentioned at all in laws and regulations, or specifically excluded from regulations covering occupational diving.

Recreational diver training and dive leading are industry regulated in some countries, and only directly regulated by government in a subset of them. In the UK, HSE legislation includes recreational diver training and dive leading for reward; [38] in the US and South Africa industry regulation padi worldwide desired accepted, though padi worldwide desired health and safety legislation still applies.

The extent of responsibility of recreational buddy divers is unclear and has been padi worldwide desired subject of considerable litigation. It is probable that it varies between jurisdictions. In spite of this lack of clarity, and conflicting evidence, padi worldwide desired diving is recommended by recreational diver training agencies as safer than solo divingand some service providers insist that customers dive in buddy pairs.

Recreational diving provides a market for the diving equipment industry, the diver training industry and the diver services industry, all padi worldwide desired which are interdependent, diving afraid video at retail level, frequently provided by the same local specialist outlet. Scuba diving tourism is the industry based drive medical homefill ii compressor servicing the requirements of recreational divers at destinations other than where they live.

It includes aspects of training, equipment sales, rental and service, guided experiences and environmental tourism. A survey of American divers indicates with a high level of confidence for the specified population, that about 3. There were about 2. The age distribution of casual and core participants differs. Core participants tend to be older.

Casual participation tends to gradually rise to apeak in early middle age, then drop markedly after aboput 45 years old, while core participation tends to continue at a relatively consistent rate over age groups up to about 65 years, after which it drops markedly. There is a greater tendency than average for scuba divers to participate in other sporting and exercise activities than the general population, but lack of adequate physical fitness is frequently cited as a contributory factor in diving accidents.

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